Tagged: windows

Execute Powershell commands via Node.js, REST, AngularJS

Building on my last post on stateful-process-command-executor this post will cover how you can leverage that node.js module to expose the capabilities of Powershell cmdlets over a REST api presented through an AngularJS interface.  Why would one want to do this you ask? Well I’ve covered this in my last post but I will briefly explain it here.

(Note, what is described below could just as easily be built for Bash processes as well as the underlying module supports it)

The use case came out of the need to automate certain calls to manage various objects within Microsoft o365’s environment. Unfortunately Microsoft’s GraphAPI, does not expose all of the functionality that is available via its suite of various Powershell cmdlets for o365 services. Secondly when you need to do these operations via Powershell, its requires a per-established remote PSSession to o365…. and establishing (and tearing down) a new remote PSSession whenever you need to invoke a cmdlet against a remote resource (remote server, or o365 endpoint) is expensive. Lastly, who wants to actually sit there and manually run these commands when they could be automated and invoked on demand via other means… such as via a web-service etc. Hence this is how stateful-process-command-proxy came to be… it provides the building block bridge between node.js and a pool of pre-established Powershell consoles. Once you have node.js talking to stateful-process-command-proxy, you can build whatever you want on top of that in node.js to mediate the calls.

Layer one

The first higher level NPM module that builds on stateful-process-command-proxy is powershell-command-executor

What this adds on top of stateful-process-command-proxy is probably best described by this diagram:

 

So the main thing to understand is that the module provides the PSCommandService class which takes a registry of pre-defined “named” commands and respective permissible arguments. The registry is nothing more than a object full of configuration and is easy to define. You can see an example here in the project which defines a bunch of named “commands” and their arguments usable for o365 to manipulate users, groups etc.  PSCommandService is intended to serve as a decoupling point between the caller and the StatefulProcessCommandProxy… in other words a place where you can restrict and limit the types of commands, and arguments (sanitized) that can ever reach the Powershell processes that are pooled within StatefulProcessCommandProxy.

It is PSCommandService‘s responsibility to lookup the named command you want to execute, sanitize the arguments and generate a literal Powershell command string that is then sent to the StatefulProcessCommandProxy to be execute. StatefulProcessCommandProxy, once the command is received is responsible for checking that the command passes its command whitelist and blacklist before executing it. The sample o365Utils.js config file provides a set of pre-canned (usable) examples of init/destroy commands, auto-invalidation commands and whitelist/blacklist configs that you can use when constructing the StatefulProcessCommandProxy that the PSCommandService will use internally.

Layer two

The next logic step is to expose some sort of access to invoking these pre-canned “commands” to callers. One way to do this is via exposing it via a web-service.

WARNING: doing such a thing, without much thought can expose you to serious security risks. You need to really think about how you will secure access to this layer, the types of commands you expose, your argument sanitiziation and filtering of permissible commands via whitelists and blacklists etc for injection protection. Another precaution you may want to take is running it only on Localhost for experimental purposes only. READ OWASPs article on command injection.

Ok with that obvious warning out of the way here is the next little example project which provides this kind of layer that builds on top of the latter: powershell-command-executor-ui

This project is a simple Node.js ExpressJS app that provides a simple set of REST services that allows the caller to:

  • get all available named commands in the PSCommandService registry
  • get an individual command configuration from the registry
  • generate a command from a set of arguments
  • execute the command via a set of arguments and get the result
  • obtain the “status” of the underlying StatefulProcessCommandProxy and its history of commands

Given the above set of services, one can easily build a user-interface which dynamically lets the user invoke any command in the registry and see the results… and this is exactly what this project does via an AngularJS interface (albeit a bit crude…). See diagrams below.

Hopefully this will be useful to others out there, enjoy.

 

 

 

Encrypting and storing powershell credentials

Please see: https://github.com/bitsofinfo/powershell-credential-encryption-tools

Recently I had the need to store some credentials for a powershell script (i.e. credentials that I ultimately needed in a PSCredential object). The other requirement is that these credentials be portable and “user” independent, meaning that they could not be encrypted using the DPAPI (windows data protection api) as that binds the “secret” used for the encryption to the currently logged in user (which reduces your portability and usage of these encrypted credentials). The way to avoid this is to specify the secret key parameters in the ConvertTo-SecureString and ConvertFrom-SecureString commands which will force it to use AES (strength determined by your key size)

I ended up coding a few powershell scripts that assist with the creation of a JSON AES-256 encrypted credentials file + secret key, as well as functions you can include in other powershell scripts to load these credentials into usable formats such as PSCredentials, SecureStrings etc.

Please see: https://github.com/bitsofinfo/powershell-credential-encryption-tools

NOTE! The most important thing about using the output from this tool, is properly locking down (i.e. file permissions) the secret key!

The format of the resulting file looks something like this:

{ "username" : "AESEncryptedValue", "password": "AESEncryptedValue" }